I have not managed to kill many carriers, only a handful in over 310 PvP battles. :? They excel at staying behind their fleet mates. ;) About the only time you'll get close to them, unless you're in a destroyer, is near the end of a match. Perhaps distance is not a big deal if you're in a ship like the Yamato that can range almost the entire map, but I'm just getting into upper tier cruisers and have just researched the New Mexico class battleship, though I can't afford one right now. :/
When I had a nice one-on-one with an Independence class carrier this past week, I decided to see if I could put together five or six minutes of carrier kills. I could. There are only four of them, and I did not land the last penetration on one of them, but they do show the gambit of what you'll encounter when you get and opportunity to open up on one. Enjoy!